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­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­Who was he?


Years ago I woke from a dream with an image of a man’s face. He had a very pleasant disposition, almost jolly, but not in any way naive. What struck me was how equally prominent I could see the likeness of all peoples in his face. We are all created in His image was my first thought, or maybe he was more like an Adam, or a Noah.


I didn’t think much more about it until I read a finding in genetics that everyone on earth shares the same mother, scientists call her Mitochondrial Eve (mt-Eve). Mitochondrial DNA is maternally inherited and builds the energy conversion mechanism in our cells, apparently unchanged across generations except for mutations. Scientists were able to assess our relatedness by comparing mitochondria mutations from people with all different ancestries across the globe.


They built lineage trees and were surprised when they all traced back to the same original mother. Whatever other peoples may have existed before or with Mitochondrial Eve, this much is pretty certain; all alive today can trace their ancestry back to her. We are, literally, all kin.


Researchers then wondered when mt-Eve might have lived, and based their estimates on mtDNA differences between humans and chimps, spread out across hypothetical Evolutionary timelines. This forced the typically less than 50 mtDNA differences within human populations to be sprinkled across several hundred-thousand years. But when actual mtDNA mutation rates measured across modern generations were used instead, those mutations could have accumulated in a much shorter period, some estimates as recently as 6000 years ago. (see; Parsons, T.J. et al., A high observed substitution rate in the human mitochondrial DNA control region, Nat. Genet. 15:363–368, 1997, and Gibbons, A., Calibrating the mitochondrial clock, Science 279:28–29, 1998, and Madrigal et al, High Mitochondrial Mutation Rates Estimated from Deep-Rooting Costa Rican Pedigrees; American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 2012).


The implications of these results were widely disputed, but given our mtDNA is only about 16,000 bases long, one wonders how we are not yet extinct if hominoid evolutionary timescales were really true, because if modern rates are any indication over 5% of our critical energy sourcing DNA could have been corrupted every 100,000 years. Not to mention all the mtDNA mutations inherited from the preceding forms of life.


And not to mention Stanford University’s Gerald Crabtree, who estimated a ‘2 to 5%’ degradation in our intelligence within the past 5000 years due to mutations. Dr. Crabtree attributes this recent decline to changing selection pressures and the creature comforts of a rising civilization, far less demanding on our intellect than hunting and gathering.


Is he serious? Colonists were amazed at the massive amounts of fish visibly roiling up the Delaware River, a stone’s throw from all the wigwams lining the shore. The western plains were covered with buffalo, abundant targets impossible to miss, and Northwest salmon could be had with a simple net.


When food is scarce, deer populations don’t evolve better brains – they weaken, and succumb to disease and starvation until there is just enough to go around for the most robust among them who survived. As for all the hunters and gatherers in my backyard, the squirrels, rabbits, hawk and chipmunks continue to hunt and gather with the same tricks they’ve used from time immemorial, and I’m the only one with a computer.


Dr. Crabtree has himself backed into a corner, it seems to me, because the only other option consistent with his findings is the one that cannot be spoken; that humanity is just not that old. Such a premise might also explain why there are no 50,000 year old skyscrapers… a rough hewed bar stool or two … or even just a few retaining walls.


How else are we to understand the recent and rapid rise of civilizations? As I recall it was because life was so harsh there was no time or energy for such complex endeavors. Or was it because life was so easy they didn’t need to? Or was it some Just-So combination of both? It’s hard to recall anything concrete from such wide appeals to our imaginations.

Near as I can tell it must have been the former, because according to the graph below human evolution was so successful we over evolved, teetering on the edge of extinction for over 100,000 years until a recent population boom, just in time to align with the much disparaged Book of Genesis.



It is a peculiar paradox that they claim, where the paucity of artifacts in the distant past is explained away as the result of a small, struggling, stable population. While at the same time this small population, maintained over 100,000 years, had somehow remained immune to the ravages of inbreeding.


On the other hand if humanity is not that old, that would explain both the lack of artifacts from the missing large populations, and also the lack of common deformities due to inbreeding over long periods of time. Unless of course large populations were more recently wiped out, leaving only a very small population in its wake. That hypothesis has become unavoidable in current speculation despite sounding like a Biblical Flood. And despite Dr. Crabtree’s finding that our intelligence genes began to degrade around 5000 years ago, sounding like the much disparaged Biblical Fall.


Unfortunately the Book of Genesis does not support Crabtree’s thesis about our deeper past; that we had been getting smarter before we started getting dumber. Only the Theory of Evolution is pliable enough to tolerate all such inconsistencies. What one might call … I don’t know, Crabtree’s Paradox; that the presence of intelligence is inversely proportional to the evidence for intelligence




Academics talk about time and history in such majestic terms; the Bronze Age, the Iron Age, and so forth, giving the past such a massive and ancient aura. But it was not so long ago to me. My mother is over 100 years old, so just 20 of my mother’s lifetimes and we are back in the time of Jesus, or if you like, the reign of Augustus Caesar. Just 20 lifetimes and we are deep into Antiquity. Just 60 of my mother’s lifetimes and we are at the end of the Stone Age, conjuring up images of cavemen with clubs, the patron saints of anthropologists and Public Broadcasting.


But 60 lifetimes, back to back, isn’t such a long time either. Think about this; you could have been held by a 100 year old relative, while also living yourself to 100, and rocking a descendent who will live to be 100. Only 20 of such Relational lifetimes and we are back in the Stone Age, loitering on the sides of cliffs, reaching for berries. Only 10 of such Relational lifetimes and we are in the great cities and elaborate palaces of ancient Egypt and Babylon, Greece, China, and India. Regardless of how our pre-history is spun, something markedly new began to happen within the past ten thousand years that hadn’t happened in the preceding million years.


Anthropologists tell us what it was; someone dropped their berries in the dirt and saw plants grow. Then they corralled wild animals and bred them. They made boats for fishing, and then for trading all they could produce under increasingly managed conditions. S­­oon they built palaces, temples, libraries, skilled in the arts and forming well equipped armies, currencies, agricultural and sanitation systems, all within a few thousand years, in over half a dozen independent cultures across the earth. Yet somehow people hadn’t figured this out in the hundreds of thousands of years since we were said to have already progressed close to our modern intellectual capabilities. It’s hard to believe. I’ll leave it at that.


But unfortunately for us, according to Dr. Crabtree and numerous geneticists we are going back downhill again fast, based on empirical evidence from genetics with standard factors for genetic drift … after we had been slowly climbing uphill for many millions of years, based on the hypotheses of macro-evolutionary theory. More disheartening still that most mutations occur below a level detectable by natural selection, thereby slowly accumulating a mutational load we can barely perceive.


In a manner similar to mtDNA lineages, all modern people were traced to one common Y-Chromosome, or male ancestor, called ChrY Adam. ChrY Adam could have lived 6000 years ago as well, simply because of a finding that “gave us the exact (Y-Chromosome) mutation rate – one in 30 million nucleotides each generation.(See Xue Y et al. Human Y chromosome base substitution mutation rate measured by direct sequencing in a deep-rooting pedigree). But 1 mutation every 20 year generation yields 300 differences in 6000 years, a typical count of Y-Chromosome mutational differences we have today.


Researchers Stoeckle and Thaler suggest only two options to explain such findings about mt-Eve and ChrY Adam; “Contemporary sequence data cannot tell whether mitochondrial and Y chromosomes clonality occurred at the same time, i.e., consistent with the extreme bottleneck of a founding pair, or via sorting within a founding population of thousands that was (genetically) stable for tens of thousands of years.”


So one option is … “An extreme bottleneck of a founding pair”…? And the other option requires “tens of thousands of years” with no net mutational differences at all? This second option is clearly inconsistent with the evidence of measured mutation rates across modern generations. So what else are we to infer but that ChrY Adam and mt-Eve may not have been, but could have been, a couple, and not so long ago?


More genomic studies discovered a very tight population bottleneck less than 5100 years ago, as if there had been a near extinction event of some kind, followed by a rapid recovery, as evidenced by a recent explosion in genetic diversity. The report; NIHMS481879, ‘Evolution and Functional Impact of Rare Coding Variation from Deep Sequencing of Human Exomes’, graphs this in dramatic fashion.




Note the term ‘Rare coding variations’. Variants in the same gene, or alleles, which are ‘Rare’, does not mean mutations in that gene are rare, but that any particular mutation is unique to a much smaller group of people, while not found across the wider population. These Rare variants account for the thousands of inherited genetic diseases, where each disease is unique to smaller subsets of the global population.


On the other hand there are vastly more ‘Common variants’ which are found in many people across all populations and that are not harmful; perhaps even providing a beneficial diversity, a creative tapestry rather than the destructive diversity we get from mutations. The potential for distributing different combinations and permutations of these widespread or ‘high frequency’ alleles could have been present in a founding couple, and as founders they would also have been free of those ‘Rare’ mutational differences.


Still more findings show humanity’s mitochondrial phylogenetic trees collapse into three maternal lines, our more recent female ancestral descendents from mt-Eve.

This is beginning to sound a lot like Noah’s three daughters-in-law and sons surviving a worldwide catastrophic bottleneck and repopulating the earth less than 5100 years ago.

It seems unimaginable that we could have achieved our modern population from such a small crew. But receding flood waters leave wide swaths of silty loam all over the earth, like the Fertile Crescent, the Ukraine and the Nile River basin. In such abundant conditions with an increasing number of young and attractive offspring in their growing clans … rapid procreation is not unimaginable, it seems to me. It may well have been unavoidable.


Even some modern populations in more remote areas of African and South American, as well as the American Amish, have growth rates of .03, or doubling every 25 years. Today South Sudan’s is 3.8 %, doubling every 18 years. With a rate of 3.5 % (.035) a population of 200 million can be achieved in 500 years, roughly what the population was believed to be in 1 AD, not 500 years, but 3000 years after the flood by some Biblical reckoning. The surprise for me is not that populations could grow so fast – but that it was common knowledge, even requiring explanations from our most ancient historians.


According to 18th century French Historian Eusebius Salverte’s History of the Names of Men, Nations, and, Places, the ancient Babylonian historian Berossus from 3rd century BC, wrote about these ancient days; “Now they knew their wives, who, on the very day expected, regularly brought forth twins of different sexes; afterwards, when these twins had grown to years of puberty, and married, they also had twins at each birth.”


Well that would do it. Perhaps an apocryphal phrase, perhaps not, but it sounds like authentic history, why else would someone make such an innocuous comment on demography? Twins could easily have been the rule rather than the exception. Even in our modern era, woman who breast feed bore twins more frequently by a factor of ten, and older women more so than younger, those who subsist on dairy products more than those who don’t. Add a few more demographic and dietary factors, or environmental conditions, and such a preponderance of twins might be easily achieved.


Actually those ancients would find our modern connubial habits the more astonishing; population free fall in Europe and Japan, entire villages empty and for sale, decreasing fertility with a 50% reduction in sperm count just in the past 35 years, and a growing worldwide infatuation with artificial partners.





The International Journal of Science, Nature, published a study called ‘Analysis of 6,515 exomes reveals the recent origin of most human protein-coding variants; by Fu et al, discovering trends in Nuclear DNA similar to the studies we saw with mtDNA, the Y-Chromosome, and Dr. Crabtree’s unfortunate news about our intelligence genes, except it’s bad news for all his smart hunter/gatherers in my backyard as well, despite their lacking the creature comforts that apparently play such a large role in our decline;


The implications of this finding are clear: The “mass of evidence supports the hypothesis that most species, be it a bird or a moth or a fish, like modern humans, arose recently and have not had time to develop a lot of genetic diversity.” … and “approximately 73% of all protein-coding SNVs and approximately 86% of SNVs predicted to be deleterious arose in the past 5,000–10,000 years.”


What a puzzle. I guess we are to believe that 86 % of these harmful SNV mutations occurred in the past  5 to 10,000 years while only 14 % accumulated over the last 2,000,000 years, or 2,000,000,000 years since we need to account for accumulated SNVs in all the evolutionary predecessors leading up to hominoids.


Let’s pause here. From genetics we’ve learned that all of us are descended from one woman and one man, who could have lived less than 10,000 years ago, that there was a population crash less than 5100 years ago after which we grew explosively from 3 female lineages, and that the vast majority of harmful mutational differences occurred in the past 10,000 years, not just in people, but across a broad swath of life.


I’m confused. We are to understand Genesis is a myth, ok. But concurrence with seven obscure findings from genetics seems a very high bar for any ancient myth to achieve.


While Fu et al studied SNVs in Nuclear DNA, David Thaler at the University of Basel and Mark Stoeckle from Rockefeller University had similar findings studying the mitochondrial DNA of over 100,000 animals, discovering that genetically speaking, humans and 90% of animals appeared together in the Genetic record, in that they had all accumulated the same proportionate degree of genetic diversity in their mtDNA COI gene ever since. From Evolution we should have expected Thaler and Stoeckle’s 100,000 species would show a clear progression of genetic ages distributed across billions of years, as we proceed from the origins of the simplest to the most advanced form of life.


But they found that the genetic diversity in all the current versions of these species tracked contemporaneously along with humans, back to a common beginning. How many back flips does Evolutionary Theory need to make sense out of these results? Thaler and Stoeckle suggest a few, but it beggars belief that such a wide spectrum of creatures in diverse environments all got their genetic clocks reset at about the same time. Science writers were quick to tap down the study’s implications, but Thaler’s apology spoke volumes; “this conclusion is very surprising and I fought it as hard as I could”.


As if this wasn’t bad enough, Thaler had waded still further from shore; “Genetically the world ‘is not a blurry place.Each species has its own specific mitochondrial sequence and other members of the same species are identical or tightly similar … species are ‘islands in sequence space’ with few intermediate ‘stepping stones’ between them.” If individuals are stars, then species are galaxies, they are compact clusters in the vastness of empty (genomic) sequence space.”


And yet Evolution has insisted for 150 years that the history of life is indeed a very blurry place, and crayoned in lines connecting everything in the Tree of Life to prove it. We are to imagine a plethora of ‘stepping stones’ that have ‘disappeared’ from the genetic and fossil records, rather than were never there.


Those missing stepping stones are addressed by Evolution’s Theory of Punctuated Equilibrium, which explains the reason we don’t see vertical or macro-evolution in human history is because it only happens over very long periods of time. And the reason we don’t see it over the long periods of time in the fossil record is because when it does happen, it happens so fast there is no record of it at all. Macro-Evolution happened you see, but it happened behind Nature’s magic curtain, where it did its most massive evolutionary tricks, not once mind you, but hundreds of times.


This same theory asks us to believe that the environmental history of the earth was so fortuitously sliced and diced such that hundreds of life forms remained the same while other hundreds evolved into radically new creatures; an environmental contortionist trick of unimaginable proportions. And this despite the fact that all morphological types are common across the entire earth and seas, and despite the fact that there are no known genomic-environmental pathways on how such radical transformations could possibly have occurred, or even imagined, and despite the claim that the mechanism for all these miracles was effected either by continually damaging perfectly good and necessary genes, or arose from what Evolutionists called ‘Junk DNA’, of which we now know there is no such thing. How gullible must I be to believe such a tale?


Apparently I’m not alone in my incredulity. Thomas Nagel, retired NYU professor of Philosophy and Law, recently wrote “the modern scientific story of the origin of life through evolution is ‘ripe for displacement’ … ‘a heroic triumph of ideological theory over common sense,’ which will be seen as ‘laughable’ in a couple of generations.


And Richard Lewontin, retired Harvard professor and leading Evolutionary Biologist, a co-author of the Theory of Punctuated Equilibrium, wrote; “Our willingness to accept scientific claims that are against common sense is the key to an understanding of the real struggle between science and the supernatural. We take the side of science in spite of the patent absurdity of some of its constructs … in spite of the tolerance of the scientific community for unsubstantiated just-so stories, because we have a prior commitment, a commitment to materialism. It is not that the methods and institutions of science somehow compel us to accept a material explanation of the phenomenal world, but, on the contrary, that we are forced by our a priori adherence to material causes to create an apparatus of investigation and a set of concepts that produce material explanations, no matter how counter-intuitive”

For those of us not in his trade, we are under no such obligation to jettison our common sense, and I am baffled why so many still do. I am willing to let mine run absolutely wild, for it is common sense that has always left me unconvinced about Evolution’s magical stories; how nature evolved the feathers and lungs of a dove, wings of a hummingbird, the sophisticated sonar of a bat, the Genome. It always seemed a little too glib for me; Abbott and Costello’s ‘Who’s on First’ routine, dressed up in more technical language.

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The Theory of Evolution proposes a biology that is both extravagantly stable and extravagantly unstable at the same time. It claims to explain an explosion of biological variety over billions of years, while at the same time explaining the miraculous stability of a multitude of other life forms over those same billions of years – on the same earth, under the same skies, and in the same seas.





Of course the alternative has its own problems, and the notion in Genesis that ‘we were created in His image’, seems incomprehensible; until we see how genetic processes are a mirror image, a fractal form if you will, of the manufacturing and distributed processing systems we ourselves create today.


The protein complex of the Flagellum below looks like a CAD diagram of any manufactured motor, yet its parts are not specified by strings of computer code but by ordered sets of DNA sequences. Each protein component in the Flagella is not cut and shaped by CAM software commands transcripted from a CAD diagram and translated to G-Code inside numerically controlled milling machines, but by highly specified ‘protein coding’ DNA sequences transcripted into RNA triplets or Codons, and translated by the Ribosome into unique poly-peptide chains, which are then folded by the Chaperonin into the 3D components of a bio-molecular motor, looking and functioning almost identically to the motors we build in factories today.




And these components are assembled in proper sequence, not from an Assembly Line on a factory floor, but by other molecular mechanisms like the Kinesin we see below, carrying each piece part from the Chaperonin to its destination, directed by location tags, much like a destination address in an internet packet header, along a scaffolding system previously assembled from other poly-peptide chains, so that this particular part can be moved to the particular place of final assembly in the right order and at the right time, as determined by precise transport delays specified by so-called ‘non-protein coding’ DNA sequences. All of this resembles the synchronized delivery, conveyer and assembly systems common in modern factories.




Well, the analogy with a manufacturing plant really doesn’t do the Cell justice. It is more like a manufacturing plant that after producing cars is automatically torn down and retrofitted to produce Fire Engines, where some of the same sequences are split and concatenated together in different combinations to build different molecular components for different organelles being built at the ends of new scaffolding, while the old scaffolding is recycled as an energy source.


And many of these components are intermediaries, with no value in themselves, only in the temporary role they play in forming the final organelle. At the same time different cells, using different reads from the same master DNA library, are constructing brain cells rather than liver cells, bone cells rather than blood cells, nerve cells rather than muscle cells all multi-tasking and remotely coordinating in ways far superior to our distributed processing systems communicating across modern networks.


New cells can’t even survive without the fault correction mechanisms of Cell replication. Much like the way Convolutional and Manchester encoding corrects invalid adjacencies in digital data sequences, cell replication uses pairing restrictions and the redundancy of the double helix to detect legal from corrupted sequences in the duplicated gene, thereby correcting the thousands of errors that would have accumulated in every new cell, killing its chance to survive, and making viable copies for cell replication impossible.


And just like our Code Division Multiple Access cell phones cross-correlate incoming pseudo random (PN) sequences with our Receiver’s unique PN code, the Ribosome cross-correlates incoming mRNA molecules with tRNA molecules pre-configured with only those unique codon sequences in the table below, thereby matching with only legitimate peptides in the mRNA sequence, to form the particular poly-peptide chains foldable into the correct shapes for installation in the particular molecular machine specified in the original DNA gene sequence. Clearly the text message riding on our cell phone PN sequences is strikingly analogous to the Peptide selection riding on the codon sequences of the mRNA.



The 61 codons in the table above also resemble the 60 or so root instructions in the Assembly Language Set of a computer. And just as a computer’s root instructions are packaged into higher level command and data structures, the Ribosome packages the codon strings shown above into higher level molecular structures; the 22 Peptide Amino Acids. And from these 22 fixed combinations of Codons are built the myriad of Polypeptide chains to construct all the components of all the molecular machines in our cells, much like the 20 or so letters in most languages are sufficient to build innumerable words, sentences and libraries.


All these genetic processes look way too familiar. They look like us.


More specifically they look like Turing Machines, named after mathematician Alan Turing, inventor of the processor that decoded German Army messages in World War II. Stated simply, Turing Machines manipulate symbols in accordance with a set of rules or operations to produce a result, product or solution. As Turing machines, our biological genetic processors execute sequences composed of 4 molecular states {A, T, C, G}, just like a digital computer Turing Machine processes sequences of 2 electrical states {H, L}.



And just as computer programming threads are formed by binding selected routines and procedures, so too Epi-Genetic algorithms select and bind together gene sequences into higher level molecular functions.


Another analogy can be made with computer printing. The 22 ‘Peptides’ built from Codon sequences are like the 26 alphabetic letters built with line segments, where the Codon sequences that build a different Peptide Amino Acid is like the line segments that build a different letter. For printing a book, each letter is constructed to build each of the defined 26 letters (like the peptide table), and the sequence of letters is ordered in a way that produces only real words (like poly-peptides) that concatenate into coherent paragraphs (like proteins) to print a meaningful story (like an organelle).


Like the Genome and its processors, every step in printing a script must be predetermined to produce an intelligible sentence, while faults in the original text or in its processing chain along the way produce nothing more than strings of nonsense.



Simply stated, our biology is like a long book of DNA imprinted with our genetic history. Or as one astute commentator observed in a way that is actually quite technically correct; we are all walking around with copies of the Old Testament in our cells.





When I look out an airplane window to the earth below, it looks like the same bluffs and gorges that formed in the ditch across our road after a torrential storm. Genesis 7 states that a global flood started when the fountains of the great deep were broken up, clearly an unobservable event that only recently made sense as modern oceanographic mapping revealed massive fracture lines extending throughout the ocean floors. Tribal legends across the earth include a flood account with a surviving family group. The 1st Century historian Josephus names eleven historians from ancient Egypt, Chaldea, Persia and Greece as his sources for the same. Primitive Chinese pictographs appear to be formed from similar recollections.


In 1980 an eruption of Mount St. Helens formed strata up to hundreds of feet deep, including twenty five feet of sharply divided sediment layers in just a few hours. A natural dam broke in 1982 releasing a 9 hour violent mix of mud, water, rock and debris, cutting through this strata like a buzz saw, leaving behind a new canyon with a little stream below, bordered by walls similar in structure to what we are told took tens to hundreds of millions of years to form layering like the Grand Canyon, some extending across entire continents virtually unchanged, common mega-sequences ubiquitous across the globe.



A simple walk along the beach at Sullivan’s Island after Hurricane Dorian’s storm surge revealed a foot high column with dozens of laminations captured on my phone (below left). Easily mistaken for the same light and dark bands of the Grand Canyon (above right), save for the shadow of sea grass on the rising wall.



Across the globe are mega-sequences of similarly stratified layers of limestone, shale and sandstone. The canonical form throughout the strata, the sharpness of transitions between layers, the uniformity of the contouring for many miles, the lack of erosions and bioturbations in each layer, stacks bent like a pile of rugs before fully lithified (above right) – are all indications of a rapid formation in a common event, rather than each layer slowly and uniquely shaped, gullied and battered during a million year long era of some hypothetical geo-biological epoch.


The only departures from this continuous canonical layering are a great variety of crisscrosses and gaps called ‘Unconformities’ by geologists.



But like the canonical vertical layering, the sheer variety and abruptness of these disjoint transitions, their lack of epochal accretions in each layer, all indicate contiguous events in time; not unlike the ‘unconformities’ contractors rapidly construct with teams of bull-dozers, stone masons and brick layers.


Earthquakes, tsunamis and volcanoes are nature’s contractors, building hosts of ‘unconformities’. Apparently at one time even moving small mountains of one geological structure miles away to rest on a dissimilar formation, far away from where the matching geological structure was discovered. Hurricane Dorian built us a few new unconformities; a new stratified column sitting on top of a loose sand geology.



Cementing agents such as limestone and water can rapidly solidify into all kinds of unconformities with shapes and colors as their ingredients dictate. Clever landscapers stack bags of sakrete for retaining walls, creating  gap ‘unconformities’ once the paper bags, like nature’s unlithifiable sediments, are washed away.



Yet in a peculiar twist of logic, evolutionary geologists interpret similar transitions and gaps in strata as evidence for a billion years of elapsed time. For them, the absence of evidence of passing time indicates a time span so long that all the evidence has disappeared. Where have we heard such stunning logic before?




In other words the absence of evidence of elapsed time is evidence of vast ages of time … and how is that not nonsense? All the more so when everywhere else in dynamics, abrupt changes in physical signatures are evidence of rapid or near instantaneous transitions in time, hence the mathematical term discontinuities, or its geological equivalent, unconformities.


Can we not speculate instead that the absence of evidence of elapsed time is evidence that not much time had elapsed? But evolutionary geologists don’t think so, and this is no more clearly expressed than a quote from an Educational Website on Geology; “It is a special experience to put your finger on a major unconformity and to think about how much of Earth’s history is missing at the contact.”


It is indeed a special experience if evolutionary geologists have discovered something bewilderingly inconsistent with the rest of physics.



Returning to Sullivan’s Island found the whole beach area back to normal, flattened and mixed by wind and rain and the wash of tides leaving no trace of the foot high sedimentary layers we saw in the previous photos. Clearly, to preserve our brand new stratigraphic column would require a stable covering above it as well, protecting the layers we saw before, or at least giving the sediments the opportunity to lithify. But whatever provides that covering must also have a stable environment, such as a limited exposure to the elements, otherwise the layers beneath would be destroyed.



Is the pattern not clear? Each layer from bottom to top of any geological column requires a stable environment above, or alternatively in terms of time; very brief interludes between layers, for the entire stack below to solidify in such a canonical fashion. From this sequence of cell phone pictures alone one could argue that the evolutionary explanation for the formation of Stratigraphic Columns is itself a logical fallacy, although a more suitable synonym comes to mind.




A flooded inland slough left some fish high and dry as the waters receded back into the slough, and in a few days all gone but the bones, which will be gone  soon enough from scavengers and the elements unless covered up quick enough and deep enough to avoid decomposition by hosts of microorganisms.



Is it not obvious that to create fossils with the articulation below requires a rapid encasement in sediments?


And contrary to popular notions, researchers found rapid fossilization is possible, when in addition to temperature and pressure, they are encased in sedimentary layers that allow certain bio-molecules to escape while retaining others critical to fossil formation. See Sediment Encased Maturation, A Novel method for simulating Diagenesis in Organic Fossil Preservation, Palaeontology, Vol. 62, Part 1, 2019.


That layer upon layer of such articulated fossils exists throughout the geological column is still more evidence all these layers must have been covered up rapidly and deeply for their preservation; in other words all formed in quick succession.



Many sites look like mass kills, dinosaurs broken up and fossilized in flood-like piles of debris, marine life and land life all mixed up and dumped together, the downstream wreckage of a Johnstown Flood.





Dinosaurs are often found in a peculiar posture of heads arched back. When a dinosaur is alive a neck ligament balanced the weight of the head and the fats in the neck.  But if its carcass is floating in water, the ligament would arch the dinosaur’s’ neck back as the head was suspended and the soft neck fats dissolved.


Soft tissues and elastic blood vessels are still present in many dinosaur remains and some even still stink, while electron microscope images reveal dinosaur bone cells as articulated as contemporary bone cells. Clearly to preserve such tissue for 65 million years we’ll need still more of nature’s magic tricks than we’ve already seen.



The fossils below appear in ascending layers of the Stratigraphic Column. As such, fish are said to have evolved 400 million years ago in the Devonian Period, turtles around 250 million years ago, and snakes 150 million years ago in the Jurassic Period.



How about this instead; Water I’m told, seeks the lowest level. The fish in my photo below are trapped, struggling to escape asphyxiation from the rapidly draining slough, much like a receding wave. Smaller fish and turtles got stuck at a higher level as the water level rapidly dropped, leaving them stranded and unable to move their heavy bodies thru the mud with such tiny legs. The cottonmouth is free to move anywhere he wants; in water, mud, land, or over the 4 inch steel channel on his way up uncomfortably close to me. Surely a species that could barrel on up to the Jurassic in no time at all, should conditions ever warrant.



If something like the sedimentary deposits we saw from Hurricane Dorian or Mt. St. Helens covered this slough with similar sedimentary layering, we would have ourselves the same set of fish, turtle and snake fossils all arranged in a new stratigraphic column – minus the tens of millions of years between layers, minus the tortured vocabulary of paleontology, minus the miraculous evolution from fish to turtles and snakes, and minus all the college tuitions required to transform the obvious into an exceedingly fanciful and complicated story.


The next day a brief rise in the water level set those same dead turtles adrift, some on their backs, a few still upright, and some listing, not yet flipped over.



It reminded me of the great Ankylosaur dinosaur mystery in Alberta, Canada. Since the 1930s scientists had been baffled by the large number of Ankylosaur dinosaurs fossilized upside down, without any sign of being flipped and devoured by other predators. Paleontologists came up with four theories, including the ‘clumsy dinosaurs rolling down the hills’ theory. In pursuit of a better theory a team of university researchers in Georgia recently studied 174 armadillo carcasses from fresh road kill, watching carefully to see if any flipped upside down as they decomposed, in what seems an unnecessarily expensive and unpleasant endeavor. They could have just stepped a few feet off the road into the swamp.


Many of these carcasses were placed in the researcher’s backyards where neighbors gladly tolerated the stench just for the privilege of witnessing science in the making.


By 2018 Canadian researchers joined the crusade with a sophisticated 3D digital model of the Ankylosaur anatomy and biology. Their model’s decomposing body produced a bloating from stomach gases sufficient to flip their top heavy bodies over when floating in the virtual water, finally solving the 90 year old mystery to everyone’s satisfaction. Leading paleontologists at the University of Toronto and the Canadian Museum of Nature were ecstatic “It’s pretty rare that the scientific method plays out so cleanly in practice”. I should say so, but one wonders what else they were expecting.


I can’t believe university scientists were stumped for so long on something as simple as how to flip a top heavy carcass. More likely it shows the lengths they go for any explanation other than the obvious; given that Alberta is the most inland province in Canada with an average elevation of 1500 ft above Sea Level, those dinosaurs likely drowned, bloated and flipped over in a global flood.






Rock deformations indicate past earthquakes orders of magnitude beyond anything experienced in recent history. Massive volcanoes pumped ash into the sky, blocking the sun and forming the glacial ice flows still receding today, uncovering preserved and fossilized vegetation from ferns to cypress trees, alligators to birds, all across the Canadian and Norwegian Arctic. Similar finds are discovered beneath the frozen sheets of Antarctica. Immense coal beds rest on planes of clay and covered with layers of ash, an otherwise unassociated arrangement of sediments save for some great upheaval.


All are signs of a temperate world succumbing to a major structural shift, perhaps from an internal flaw or triggered by an asteroid, such as we see nightly as our pot marked moon ambles across the evening sky.


The sharp drop in the ocean floor below looks like the bottom fell out as subterranean waters gushed up from the mid-ocean rifts, the so-called fountains of the great deep, leaving behind sinkholes of Biblical proportions. And if recent measurements of ocean drainage back down through the Mariana Trench had indeed been going on for a billion years – the ocean basins of today would be dry as an empty swimming pool.




The message from nature is clear. We live on a geology shaped by violence rather than time, with fossils sorted by simple physics rather than the elaborate saga of Paleontology.





Evidence for such a catastrophe continues to multiply. Bombers abandoned in Greenland during WWII were discovered buried beneath 300’ of ice. Meteorologists attribute this rapid accumulation to the warm waters of the Gulf Stream against a frozen coastline, forming a regional niche of inordinate evaporation and precipitation, creating near glacial level accumulations in just a handful of decades. Likewise the massive rifts in ocean floors imply hot mantle breaking through, warming the oceans while atmospheric ash from land volcanoes cooled the continents on a global scale. And like Dorian’s layering of sand on Sullivan’s Island, such a highly dynamic atmosphere could easily create many thin layers of ice. As one atmospheric scientist points out; all that tumult could cause a storm every three days creating 120 such layers in a year.


The notion of a single catastrophic Ice Age has an extraordinary degree of explanatory power for the environmental trends we see today, such as the receding glaciers and our dynamic climate. Atmospheric scientist Michael Oard illustrates this theory in the diagram below.




And herein lays a problem; how to account for flip-flopping between temperate climates pole to pole and extreme ice ages. Scientists who incline to Oard’s diagram above see today’s global warming primarily as the working out of major natural events more than the result of human activity, though both are seen as significant contributors. Today’s warming period may be partly akin to the so-called Roman Warm and Medieval Warm, each extending over 400 years with virtually no contribution from such small preindustrial populations. Whereas scientists with a more uniformitarian theory of earth’s geological history have difficulty finding a natural mechanism for such extreme climate change from Temperate to Ice Age and back again. They conclude the atmosphere must be much more sensitive to much smaller variations in carbon emissions, hence the apocalyptic forecasts we hear today despite the significant reductions in technological emissions already achieved in most western countries.


Unfortunately their concern is quite selective as they are not sufficiently alarmed to reinstitute common sense policies like fire breaks and controlled brush burns, which would eliminate the massive forest fires in California and Australia that release far more carbon into the atmosphere than fossil fuel emissions.






The Grand Staircase of the Southwest forms arrays of sedimentary layers thousands of feet above current seas. Monument Valley appointed with plateaus, mesas and buttes; all shaped by strong currents with tops as flat as beach sand following a receding wave, and plains littered with boulders like pebbles in a tidal pool left behind. The sharp articulated edges and lack of erosion on all these pillars confirm a recent formation, not to mention boulders precariously balanced on the head of a pin, while limestone surfaces packed with marine organic debris blanket a ground once covered in a sea or transported from a thousand miles away.




Is it not obvious that if any of these layers were exposed to the environment for any length of time they would not look like a stack of rugs, but each layer would be as variegated in surface shape and bioturbations as the topmost layer on which we live?


This is not a puzzle. The Bad Lands, the Grand Staircase, the Canyon, Glaciers and Ice Cores, the Fossil Records and rootless Petrified Forests … are all of a piece, the mechanics of which we observe on much smaller scales today.





There are many other conundrums that question conventional notions of earth’s history.


Like why the planets in our solar system are still so geo-thermally active after billions of years, well beyond the energy they receive from the sun or planetary flexing.


Even the dwarf planet Ceres with a surface area less than a hundredth of our earth is still volcanically active … after 4.5 billion years?


John Baumgardner; Geophysicist, UCLA PhD, retired Staff Scientist in the Theoretical Division of Los Alamos National Laboratory, developed the TERRA program, a finite element model of the earth’s geo-physics used widely around the world. It correctly predicted the paths of continental drift from what was once the unified Pangaea formation.


As TERRA continued its numerical iterations, a thermal runaway in the earth’s mantle began to arise; decreasing the mantle’s viscosity, thereby increasing the speed of the sub-ducted plates, further increasing the mantle heat, further decreasing its viscosity, and so on. Ultimately Baumgardner’s model produced plate speeds on the order of a meter/sec, until the sinking plates collided with the hard Mantle-Core boundary, and also predicting a much colder temperature for these plates despite resting in that hot mass.

His Terra results (left slide, right globe) were subsequently confirmed years later by improved seismic and thermal instrumentation (left slide, left globe). Findings from this instrumentation included a sub-ducted plate mass 2500 km below earth’s surface yet still 3000 degrees cooler than the Core boundary into which it collided and the hot mantle in which it sat; a residual temperature differential implying a far more recent event (right slide).


Whereas the predictions of conventional geology has the plates creeping along at centimeters per year for billions of years, coming to rest just 600 km below the surface of the earth, well above the Core/Mantle boundary, and long ago acclimated to the mantle’s ambient temperature. But they were wrong.


How can I not prefer Dr. Baumgardner’s model when we see the results from tectonic plates today move at the slow rates of several centimeters per year. The land splits and mud flows, rocks slide and buildings collapse, but no new mountain ranges are formed, and no new continents are set adrift. Baumgardner’s mathematical physics revealed unexpected thermal runaways producing plate velocities that could cause head-on collisions sufficient to form the Rockies and Himalayas, evidenced by the sharp upward tilt of the stratigraphic column inside Mount Everest. Conventional geology creates the fender benders we see today.


Note that Baumgardner’s results were widely lauded and published in scientific journals, with a publisher making one unapproved edit to Baumgardner’s surprise; a long time scale was superimposed on the bottom to make it look consistent with current dogma on earth’s history. But as his TERRA model showed, if the slow drift over millions of years of time were true, the results they lauded could never have happened.


One need not be a geo-physicist to grasp Baumgardner’s results. Theories that suggest slow motion sustained over hundreds of millions of years in the presence of complex opposing geological forces seems contrary to nature and physics at the most fundamental level. Typically, such reduced motion in a physical lossy system is a residual drift after a severe and recent disturbance. Even adding in the tug of the moon, with its frictionless rotation around the earth, would have to be so precisely balanced by ‘Just-so’ opposing forces on the plates for the continents to scoot along at inches/year for hundreds of millions of years. Such a happy coincidence in an earth full of complex shapes, materials and dynamics seems problematic to me.


In the 1970s, Thomas Barnes, professor and research physicist at Univ. of Texas, Duke, and Director of Schellenger Research Laboratories, predicted rapid shifts in earth’s magnetic field using similar assumptions as Baumgardner. But it was a prediction contrary to conventional palaeomagnetism, which held magnetic inversions might occur once every 100,000 years and take about 10,000 years to complete.


Barnes prediction was validated in the 1980s when UC and the USGS researchers discovered rapid reversals in the rock layers of Steens Mountain, that must have occurred within the few weeks it took before the lava flows solidified (see Coe, R. S., Prévot, M. and Camps, P., 1995. New evidence for extraordinarily rapid change of the geomagnetic field during a reversal Nature; 374:687–692.) Despite the fact that these researchers were impartial leaders in the field of geo-magnetism and had considered and eliminated other possible causes of these rapid reversals imprinted in the flows, their measurements and its implications were broadly discounted, because it was not consistent with current geological dogma.


Physicist Russell Humphreys, BS-Duke, PhD-LSU had improved the Barnes model and also predicted the Steens Mountain results, as well as the rapidly alternating magnetic field reversals of 2,000 core sample drills across the globe, while also accounting for the significant decrease in the earth’s magnetic field just in the past millennia. How can I not prefer the physics of Drs. Humphreys and Barnes … when the alternative is to believe the earths’ highly dynamic magnetic field has been sustained for 4.5 billion years amid lossy conditions – a perpetual motion machine that makes the Laws of Thermodynamics look silly.


Conventional science did not predict a residual magnetic field for the other planets of our solar system, conveniently leaving the earth’s field as the only inconvenient case that needed an explanation. Whereas Humphrey’s model predicted the magnetic field of the Moon, Mercury, Mars, Neptune, Uranus and Pluto would still be quite strong, all confirmed by later planetary probes. So if the earth’s field is clearly the rule rather than the exception, why then, are dynamic fields still so strong on other planets billions of years old?


Actually the measurements made between 1975 and 2011 reveal the Magnetic Field of Mercury is degrading even faster than Humphreys’ model predicted. How can Mercury be 4 billion years old if its magnetic field has degraded so much so recently?





Carbon 14 measurements from some of our oldest artifacts are on the order of 20,000 years ago. That may be, but we know earth’s magnetic field was greater by 10% only 200 years ago and 35% 2,000 years ago, significantly reducing the cosmic rays into the atmosphere thereby reducing the C14 levels in those artifacts, making them look older than they are – just one among several possible sources of error. What we also know is that as we go further back in time from 1400 BC, the differences between verifiable dates in antiquity begin to spread exponentially away from the C14 dates claimed for the same periods.


Then we have the opposite problem; significant measurements of residual Carbon 14 with a half life of only 5730 years have been discovered in everything from diamonds (supposedly byr) to coal (300 myr) to dinosaur bones (65 myr) and petrified wood (200 myr). Notable amounts of C14 is everywhere throughout the geological column and the fossil record. Why aren’t these C14 levels vanishingly small?


Zircon crystals are dated at a billion years old; inexplicable given the high level of Helium discovered inside, given the measured leak rates of Helium out of Zircon as recorded by the blue Data points below. Zircon crystals are formed after magma cools, but before it does Uranium 238 can be absorbed due to its similar molecular structure, whereas lead is prohibited from molten zircon due to its molecular structure.



As the U238 decays inside the crystals Lead and Helium are produced, so that the quantity of lead trapped inside the crystals is an indicator of the quantity of Helium produced from that same decay. But as a much smaller molecule Helium leaks out of the crystals over time, much like Helium leaking through the wall of aluminum foil party balloons. Why then were significant quantities of helium still inside the crystals if they were a billion years old, with no appreciable helium found in other rock formations at the same site?


Physicists (re; Humphreys et al) used their contacts in the mining industry to contract laboratories for these tests in order to ensure the results were produced and reported without bias. Based on the quantities of lead in the Crystals and the measured leakage rates, the residual Helium matched the quantity of lead only if the zircon crystals were formed on the order of 6000 years ago.


Sure, there are other radiometric findings that indicate billions of years, but many others do not. One should remember that nuclear decay is a statistical distribution; there is no single decay rate even for all the atoms of the same isotope in the same sample. Atoms aren’t waiting for other atoms to emit, like sand grains trickling through at constant rate in the popular hourglass analogy. A line of musket fire may be the better analogy, where the skill at loading a flintlock is widely diverse.


And new discoveries indicate radioactive decay rates can change significantly with conditions, so if we don’t know what the particular conditions were, the distribution of these decay rates can vary dramatically. If I found an old truck in the woods, rusted up with cobwebs, sunk in the mud with rotted upholstery, I would say it was inoperable, and had been abandoned there for a long, long time. But if the engine block was warm to the touch, or the tire tracks still fresh, all other indicators would have been irrelevant.


Other conundrums abound. Tracks of trilobites are often found several layers below where all the trilobite fossils are in abundance. Evolutionary biologists believe they must have been different trilobites separated by millions of years. Well maybe. But if these layers were laid down quickly in a series of sedimentary events, then we would expect to see exactly what we do see; the imprints of the same colony of trilobites surviving through each layer of mud before they were finally got stuck and fossilized farther up the stack.


This same finding is true of birds, salamanders and dinosaurs. Dinosaur footprints are found several layers below any dinosaur fossils, in some cases 50 million years later by Evolutionary stratigraphic reckoning. Curiously the dinosaur fossils include their long tails but made no tail marks in the layers where only footprints where found, as if suspended in water. Currents with a westerly heading appeared to be in play due to odd angles of foot prints with track line headings like an airplane’s banking yaw against a crosswind.


Harvard’s famed paleontologist Stephen J. Gould expressed frustration with still more features of the fossil record, coined as Disparity before Diversity, and Sudden Appearance – than Stasis. He expected morphological types to undergo significant speciation (diversity) before the appearance of fundamentally different (disparate) morphologies. But they did not.


And he did not expect to see so many types appear suddenly fully formed without a clear precedent, and remaining virtually unchanged (Stasis) in all subsequent layers ascending up the strata. But they did.


Insect Paleontologist Dr. Gunter Bechly’s fossil record below illustrates these same findings for winged insects (butterflies, beetles, wasps, etc.), fully formed without any precedent below, then speciating into more types of butterflies, beetles and wasps,  a pattern repeated for flowering plants, birds, reptiles, and animals.



Gould’s effort to hammer together a story to explain such inconvenient facts was widely praised, but it’s just too many punctuated equilibriums occurring with too big of jumps in too many epochs across too many different life forms to be so celebrated by any but the most easily persuaded.


More measured thinking can be found in his colleague’s lament that we take the side of science in spite of the patent absurdity of some of its constructs, or Thomas Nagel’s quip that we are witnessing a heroic triumph of ideological theory over common sense. Samuel Taylor Coleridge called such group think a willing suspension of disbelief. Lincoln made it more painfully clear; you can fool all of the people some of the time, and some of the people all of the time …


Even if you believe the Fossil Record represents a biological evolution it’s still not a ‘Tree of Life’ or an ‘Evogenao’ cartoon. It’s an Orchard; an orchard of life that suddenly appears fully formed and then speciates as independent lineages.


Here’s an idea; all these fossils are what you would expect if they were not a record of Evolution, but dumping grounds of pre-existing ecosystems. Paleontologist Kurt Wise, PhD Harvard, describes how local fossil distributions are filled with disparate life-forms but with few variants, typically the variants or species unique to a geographic region, as we see in the living ecosystems of today, where different species of fish, insects, and plants are unique to their locale.


In other words the fossil record is what we would expect if regional ecosystems were carried away by massive tsunamis or the current of a major flood; depositing a wide range of morphologies distributed up the column based on their ability to survive, but with limited speciation consistent with the ecosystem of their origin, thereby producing numerous fossil sites with a record of large disparity without much diversity, the opposite of what Evolution predicts.




Dr. Wise explains that within the geological column are stacks of very thin laminated layers with fossils of burrowing type organisms such as worms. But while some evidence of burrowing can be found, it was clearly rapidly aborted, because unlike our surface dirt of earth today, not enough burrowing time had taken place to turn those thin laminations into the mixture we call soil.


If these layers or series of layers were separated by large spans of time we should see different bioturbations at each level throughout the strata, evidence of mature and complex ecologies, not just debris fields of fossils, sandwiched between otherwise sterile sequences of sediment with a structural uniformity that extends across hundreds of miles. And if these mega-sequences of layers of sedimentary rock were formed only by local events, why are they so consistent across the entire globe? Unlike our modern tides, a more global kind of flooding could have produced a more continuous pull; spreading these sediments into common layering that could extend across entire continents, like the stratigraphic columns we see today.


The scarring on these strata indicates the direction of powerful flows of water, mud and aggregate. Dr. Wise points out that extensive data collection has shown that the sedimentary layers believed to be associated with such a flood show a scaring from east to west as the direction of flow, as do the distribution of fossils that stretch across great distances yet hug along common latitudes. Eastern corals found in far western continental mud, dinosaur footprints appearing to fight a latitudinal current, all indicate a global event under the influence of the moon for brief periods. Whereas the rock scaring in the upper layers depict random directionality, what we expect from residual local effects no longer dominated by global currents.


Dr. Wise explains that floating on top of this great sea could have been Jurassic like vegetation, uprooted jungles and wildernesses with decaying animal life, pulled into massive floating mats and bathed in overheated ocean waters, creating mega-algae blooms, and sealing off the waters below from the atmosphere above. Under the right conditions dense algae blooms suck oxygen from the water, killing off massive amounts of crustaceous marine organisms. As a result, everything dies but anaerobic bacteria provided with an almost infinite food supply of dead marine, animal and vegetative life.


This in turn accelerates massive bacterial blooms, which in turn produce the micron size particulate from all the dead crustaceous marine animals exposed to the bacteria, creating phenomena like the white cliffs of Dover washed up like snow drifts across the earth. And as the bacteria feast runs its course, residual organic matter sinks down into the mud, forming the layers of black shale we mine today for oil and gas.


This ecological chain reaction explains how what might have happened in the past can no longer happen today on any comparable scale.


Because according to Dr Wise; you don’t get micron sized carbonate without micron sized micro-organism like bacteria to produce it. Nothing else can demolish crustaceous marine life to particulate that small.


And you don’t get hundreds of feet thick of micron sized calcium carbonate layers popping up around the globe without massive bacterial blooms.



And you don’t get massive bacterial blooms without continent wide flotillas of organic debris.




And you don’t get that without a global flood.





Well enough of this… the truth is I don’t have much insight into genetics or geology. And from all I’ve read there are capable and honest researchers on all sides of these questions, and who knows what clarity future research and technology will bring.


But after two centuries of so much hype about the mythological Bible, I should have expected accounts of Adam and Eve and Noah’s flood to look more ridiculous under the findings of empirical science, rather than ever more plausible.







Still, I’d love to spend an afternoon on a porch with that pleasant man I saw in my dream.





I’d ask him if he made his own alcohol

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